Political Leaders Sources Consulted

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El Hamel, Chouki. “The Register of the Slaves of Sultan Mawlay Isma’il of Morocco at the Turn of the Eighteenth Century.” The Journal of African History 51, no. 1 (2010): 89–98.

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Manning, Patrick. Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slavery, 149-160. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Meyers, Allan R. "Class, Ethnicity, and Slavery: The Origins of the Moroccan 'Abid." The International Journal of African Historical Studies 10, no. 3 (1977): 427-42.

“Parliament and the British Slave Trade 1600-1833.” UK Parliament, 23 March 2018. 

Pétré-Grenouilleau, Olivier. From Slave Trade to Empire: European Colonisation of Black Africa 1780’s-1880’s. New York: Routledge, 2004.

"Slave Trades." In New Encyclopedia of Africa, 2nd ed., Vol. 4. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons, 2008. 420-443.

Sutton, Angela. “The Seventeenth-century Slave Trade in Documents of the English, Dutch, Swedish, Danish and Prussian Royal Slave Trading Companies.” Slavery & Abolition 36, no. 3: 445-459.

Swaminathan, Srividhya. Debating the Salve Trade: Rhetoric of British National Identity, 1759-1815. Farnham, England: Routledge, 2009. ( ( ( ( ( ( (

Thought Leaders Sources Consulted

Acton, Harry Burrows. “Herbert Spencer”.

American Anthropological Association. “One Race or Several Species”.

Shashkevich, Alex. “Stanford scholar traces medical experimentation on slaves in 18th-century Caribbean colonies”.

Washington, Harriet A. Medical Apartheid: The Dark History of Medical Experimentation on Black Americans from Colonial Times to the Present. Knopf Doubleday Publishing Group, 2008.

Wall, L.L “The medical ethics of Dr J Marion Sims: a fresh look at the historical record”. Accessed April 30, 2018.

Sims, James Marion. "The Story of My Life" D. Appleton, 1888

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Comb, George and Morton, Samuel George. " Crania Americana; Or, A Comparative View of the Skulls of Various Aboriginal Nations of North and South America: To which is Prefixed an Essay on the Varieties of the Human Species". University of Chicago. J Dobson, 1839.

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Everyday Citizens Sources Consulted

Andres Cierto, “Descripción de la costa de Salé que comprende desde Cavo Blanco ,” Digital Histories, accessed April 25, 2018,

African American Registry, "Abolitionist Branded a Slave Stealer", accessed May 1, 2018,

“ A Statement of the Exports from Charleston (S.C.) of the Crop of 1784, Beginning December 3, 1784, and Ending Nov. 19, 1785.,” Digital Histories, accessed April 25, 2018, Remembered and Reclaimed, "Johnson, Anthony", accessed May 1, 2018,

“The Butler Family,” Digital Histories, accessed April 25, 2018,

Doesticks, Q.K. Philander, American Anti-slavery Society, “Great auction sale of slaves, at Savannah, Georgia, March 2d and 3d, 1859,” Digital Histories, accessed April 25, 2018,

Encyclopedia Virginia, "Court Ruling on Anthony Johnson and His Servant (1655)", accessed May 1, 2018.

Exploring Maryland's Roots Library, "Anthony Johnson", accessed May 1, 2018, 

Holland Nimmons McTyeire (1824-1889), “Duties of Christian Masters,” Digital Histories, accessed April 30, 2018,

Maurice Besson, “A Slave-dealer and his customer in Africa,” Digital Histories, accessed April 30, 2018.,

National Park Service: Gulf Islands National Seashore, "Jonathan Walker", accessed May 1, 2018,

PBS: Africans in America, "Anthony Benezet", accessed May 1,

“Southern Planter: "Pomp, you Rascal! do you see any of those cursed Yankee ships coming this way?",” Digital Histories, accessed April 30, 2018,

The Abolution Project: "Anthony Benezet", accessed May 1, 2018, 

Thomas Griggs, “Cash! All person that have slaves to dispose of...,” Digital Histories, accessed April 30, 2018,

Raymond P. Stearns, “Triangular Trade, voyage of the Sanderson from Newport, RI, 1752,” Digital Histories, accessed April 25, 2018,

Ribeiro da Silva, Filipa. 2017. "The slave trade and the development of the Atlantic Africa port system, 1400s–1800s." International Journal Of Maritime History29, no. 1: 138-154. Historical Abstracts with Full Text, EBSCOhost.

William Dent, “Abolition of the slave trade, or the man the master,” Digital Histories, accessed April 30, 2018,

Enslaved People Sources Consulted

Allen, William Francis, Charles Pickard Ware, and Lucy McKim Garrison. Slave Songs of the United States: Electronic Edition. New York, NY: A. Simpson &, 1867. Accessed April 29, 2018. Number M1670 .A42 (Rare Book Collection, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill)

Armstrong, George D. The Christian Doctrine of Slavery. New York, NY: Charles Scribner, 1857. Accessed March 25, 2018.

Ball, Charles. Fifty Years in Chains; Or, The Life of an American Slave. New York, NY: H. Dayton, 1859. June 6, 2008. Accessed March 25, 2018. 

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"Charles Ball (U.S. National Park Service)." National Parks Service. Accessed April 30, 2018.

College of Physicians of Philadelphia, “Proceedings of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, relative to the prevention of the introduction and spreading of contagious diseases,” (accessed March 22, 2018).

Goldenberg, David M. 2003. The Curse of Ham: Race and Slavery in Early Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 2003. eBook Collection (EBSCOhost), EBSCOhost (accessed March 25, 2018).

Hamel, Chouki El. Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Lempriere, William, “A tour from Gibraltar to Tangier, Sallee, Mogodore, Santa Cruz, and Tarudant; and thence over Mount Atlas to Morocco. Including a particular account of the royal harem, &c.,” (accessed March 20, 2018).

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Masler, Marilyn, and Marina Pacini. Carl Gutherz: Poetic Vision and Academic Ideals. Memphis, TN: Memphis Brooks Museum of Art, 2009.

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Shashkevich, Alex. “Stanford scholar traces medical experimentation on slaves in 18th-century Caribbean colonies,” (accessed April 15, 2018).

Sims, J. M. (1852). ART. IV.--on the treatment of vesico-vaginal fistula. (). Philadelphia: American Periodicals Series II. Retrieved from American Periodicals Retrieved from

Swan, (1920) Case of Yaws. Dominican Republic, 1920. [Photograph] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

            This receipt can be used as an artifact. The receipt dates to 1862 and shows that the price for this particular treatment was $10. If possible, I would like to find another receipt from either another region, Morocco, or a service ledger for comparison.

Trotter, Thomas, “Observations on the scurvy: with a review of the theories lately advanced on that disease ; and the opinions of Dr. Milman refuted from practice,” (accessed March 22, 2018).

U.S. Census Bureau, “Slave Population of the United States: 1970-1854,” (accessed March 20, 2018).

Additional Resources

Angeles, Luis. “On the Causes of the African Slave Trade.” Kyklos 66, no. 1 (February 2013): 1–26.

Bailey, Anne C. African Voices of the Atlantic Slave Trade : Beyond the Silence and the Shame. Boston, Mass: Beacon Press, 2005.

Berlin, Ira. Generations of Captivity: A History of African-American Slaves. 8/31/04 edition. Belknap Press, 2004.

———. “The Atlantic Creoles.” Slate, May 19, 2015.

“Black Guard.” Wikipedia, July 5, 2017.

Cameron, Zac. “Morocco Magazine: Slave Trade & Morocco.” Morocco Magazine (blog), March 6, 2016.

Campbell, Gwyn, Joseph C. Miller, and Suzanne Miers. Children in Slavery Through the Ages. Athens, OH: Ohio University Press, 2009.

Cleaveland, Timothy1. “Ahmad Baba Al-Timbukti and His Islamic Critique of Racial Slavery in the Maghrib.” Journal of North African Studies 20, no. 1 (January 2015): 42–64.

Crane, Jacob. “Barbary(an) Invasions.” Early American Literature 50, no. 2 (May 2015): 331–58.

Cuno, Kenneth M., and Terence Walz. Race and Slavery in the Middle East : Histories of Trans-Saharan Africans in 19th-Century Egypt, Sudan, and the Ottoman Mediterranean. Vol. [US & CA territories only version]. Cairo: The American University in Cairo Press, 2010.

Davis, R. Christian Slaves, Muslim Masters: White Slavery in the Mediterranean, The Barbary Coast, and Italy, 1500-1800. 2003 edition. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2003.

Eltis, David, and David Richardson. Extending the Frontiers : Essays on the New Transatlantic Slave Trade Database. New Haven [Conn.]: Yale University Press, 2008.

Eltis, David, David Richardson, David W. Blight, and David Brion Davis. Atlas of the Transatlantic Slave Trade. New Haven: Yale University Press, 2010.

Gaiser, Adam. “Slaves and Silver across the Strait of Gibraltar: Politics and Trade between Umayyad Iberia and Khārijite North Africa.” Medieval Encounters 19, no. 1/2 (March 2013): 41.

“Glasser on El Hamel, ‘Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam’ | H-Atlantic | H-Net.” Accessed October 9, 2017.

Gould, Philip. Barbaric Traffic. Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 2003.

Greene, Sandra E. “Minority Voices: Abolitionism in West Africa.” Slavery & Abolition 36, no. 4 (December 2015): 642.

Hamel, Chouki El. Black Morocco: A History of Slavery, Race, and Islam. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014.

Harich, Nourdin, Marta D Costa, Verónica Fernandes, Mostafa Kandil, Joana B Pereira, Nuno M Silva, and Luísa Pereira. “The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade - Clues from Interpolation Analyses and High-Resolution Characterization of Mitochondrial DNA Lineages.” BMC Evolutionary Biology 10 (May 10, 2010): 138–138.

Horton, James Oliver, and Lois E. Horton, eds. Slavery and Public History: The Tough Stuff of American Memory. New edition edition. Chapel Hill, NC: The University of North Carolina Press, 2008.

———. Slavery and the Making of America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006.

Khan, M. A. Islamic Jihad: A Legacy of Forced Conversion, Imperialism, and Slavery. iUniverse, 2009.

Law, Robin. “The Human Commodity: Perspectives on the Trans-Saharan Slave Trade.” African Affairs, no. 369 (1993): 623.

Lecocq, Baz. “Awad El Djouh and the Dynamics of Post-Slavery.” International Journal of African Historical Studies 48, no. 2 (May 2015): 193.

E. Ann McDougall. “Slavery in Morocco.” Pdf. Accessed April 26, 2018.

Manning, Patrick. Slavery and African Life: Occidental, Oriental, and African Slave Trades. Cambridge ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Milton, Giles. “Slave to the Sultan.” Bookseller, no. 5123 (April 9, 2004): 24–24.

———. White Gold: The Extraordinary Story of Thomas Pellow and North Africa’s One Million European Slaves. Edited by Roland Philipps. New Ed edition. London: Hodder Murray, 2005.

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Mohamed, Mohamed Hassan. Between Caravan and Sultan : The Bayruk of Southern Morocco: A Study in History and Identity. Studies in the History and Society of the Maghrib. Leiden: Brill NV, 2012.

Mohamed, Mohamed Hassan1. “Africanists and Africans of the Maghrib: Casualties of Analogy.” Journal of North African Studies 15, no. 3 (September 2010): 349–74.

Montana, Ismael M.1. “The Trans-Saharan Slave Trade in the Context of Tunisian Foreign Trade in the Western Mediterranean.” Journal of North African Studies 20, no. 1 (January 2015): 27–41.

Montana, Ismael Musah, and Ehud R. Toledano. The Abolition of Slavery in Ottoman Tunisia. Gainesville: University Press of Florida, 2013.

“Moroccan Moors Sold the Black Race into Slavery / ‘..Morocco against Black Africa..’(Diop Quote).” Abundance ChildTM (blog), May 10, 2010.

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Rushforth, Brett, and Omohundro Institute of Early American History & Culture. Bonds of Alliance : Indigenous and Atlantic Slaveries in New France. Published for the Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture, Williamsburg, Virginia. Chapel Hill: Omohundro Institute and University of North Carolina Press, 2012.

Schwarz, Suzanne. “Ransoming Practices and ‘Barbary Coast’ Slavery: Negotiations Relating to Liverpool Slave Traders in the Late Eighteenth Century.” African Economic History, no. 42 (2014): 59–85.

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